ລິ້ງ ສຳຫລັບເຂົ້າຫາ

ລາຍ​ການອາ​ຫານ​ ໃນວັນບຸນຂອບ​ຄຸນພະ​ເຈົ້າ ​ຂອງ​ທຳ​ນຽບ​ຂາວ ໄດ້ປ່ຽນ​ໄປ​ຕາມ​ການ​ເວ​ລາ


ອາ​ຫານ​ຕາມ​ປ​ະ​ເພ​ນ​ີ​ ທີ່​ມັກ​ກິນ​ໃນ​ວັນ​ຂອບ​ຄຸນ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ ຫລື Thanksgiving ຂອງ​ຊາວ​ອາ​ເມ​ຣິ​ກັນ (ພາບ​ໂດຍ AP)

ຊາວອາເມຣິກັນສ່ວນໃຫຍ່ ບໍ່ມີຫອຍນາງລົມຢູ່ເທິງ​ໂຕະ​ອາ​ຫານ​ໃນ​ວັນ​ບຸນ​ຂອບ​ຄຸນ​ພະ​ເຈົ້າ ຫລື Thanksgiving ຂອງເຂົາເຈົ້າ, ແຕ່ໃນຊ່ວງໃດນຶ່ງ, ອາ​ຫານ​ທະ​ເລ​ປະ​ເພດ​ຫອຍ ແມ່ນສ່ວນປະກອບອັນສໍາຄັນ ໃນລາຍ​ການ ​ຫລືເມນູອາ​ຫານ​ສຳ​ລັບວັນບຸນທີ່​ວ່ານີ້ ຂອງທຳ​ນຽບຂາວ.

ທ່ານ​ນາງ​ລີ​ນາ ແມນ (Lina Mann), ນັກປະຫວັດສາດໃນສະມາຄົມປະຫວັດສາດຂອງທໍານຽບຂາວກ່າວວ່າ "​ຫອຍ​ນາງ​ລົມ​ຍັດ​ໃສ້ ແລະອົງປະກອບຕ່າງໆ ຂອງ​ຫອຍ​ນາງ​ລົມແມ່ນມັກມີຢູ່ສະເຫມີ, ໂດຍສະເພາະໃນຕອນ​ທ້າຍໆ ຂອງສັດ ຕະວັດທີ 19. ຫອຍ​ນາງ​ລົມໄດ້ຮັບຄວາມນິຍົມສູງ. ຂ້າພະເຈົ້າຄິດວ່າທີ່ຕັ້ງຂອງນະ​ຄອນ​ຫລວງວໍຊິງຕັນ ໃກ້ກັບອ່າວແຊ​ສ​ພິກ (Chesapeake), ເຊິ່ງເປັນສູນກາງຂະ​ໜາດ​ໃຫຍ່​ຂອງຫອຍ​ນາງ​ລົມເຮັດໃຫ້ມັນເປັນສິ່ງ​ທີ່​ຂ້ອນ​ຂ້າງວ່າ​ເປັນ​ອາ​ຫານ​ສຳ​ລັບຂົງ​ເຂດນີ້ ແຕ່ວ່າ ສິ່ງນັ້ນ ​ກໍໄດ້ຄ່ອຍໆຈາງຫາຍໄປເມື່ອຫຼາຍປີ ຜ່ານ​ໄປ."

ນອກຈາກຫອຍນາງລົມແລ້ວ, ອາຫານໃນ​ວັນຂອບຄຸນພະເຈົ້າຂອງທຳນຽບຂາວ ຍັງລວມມີອາຫານ​ອື່ນໆ ​ຢູ່ໃນຂົງ​ເຂດນີ້ ເຊັ່ນ: ປາຣັອກ​ຟີ​ສ ຈາກແມ່ນ້ໍາໂປ​ໂທ​ແມັກ (Potomac), ເຕົ່າຈາກເຂດຝັ່ງຕາເວັນອອກຂອງລັດ ແມ​ຣີ​ແລນ ແລະ ໝາກ​ແຄຣນ​ເບ​ຣີ (cranberries) ຈາກລັດແມ​ສ​ຊາ​ຈູ​ແຊັສ. ((https://www.whitehousehistory.org/press-room/press-backgrounders/history-of-white-house-thanksgiving-traditions))

ເນື່ອງຈາກວ່າວັນບຸນນີ້ ມັກຈະເປັນບຸນ​ທີ່​ຈັດ​ແບບສ່ວນຕົວຫຼາຍກວ່າ, ລາຍ​ການ​ອາ​ຫານ​ໃນ​ວັນ​ບຸນ Thanksgiving ຂອງທຳ​ນຽບຂາວແມ່ນບໍ່ໄດ້ຖືກກໍານົດ ແບບຕາຍ​ໂຕ. ຄອບຄົວຂອງປະທານາທິບໍດີມັກຈະໃຊ້ເວລາໃນມື້ນັ້ນອອກ​ໄປຈາກທຳນຽບຂາວ, ອາດຈະ​ອອກ​ໄປຢູ່ເຮືອນສ່ວນຕົວຂອງພວກ​ເພິ່ນຢູ່​ລັດ​ອື່ນ ຫຼືບໍ່ ​ກໍໄປຢູ່ທີ່ບ່ອນພັກຜ່ອນ​ຂອງປະທານາທິບໍດີຢູ່​ແຄມ​ເດ​ວິດ (Camp David) ໃນລັດແມ​ຣີ​ແລນ.​

ໃນ​ປີ 1985, ປະ​ທາ​ນາ​ທິ​ບໍ​ດີໂຣ​ໂນ​ລ ຣີ​ແກນ (Ronald Reagan) ໄດ້​ໃຊ້​ເວ​ລາໃນວັນ​ບຸນ Thanksgiving ໄປຢູ່​ຟາມ​ລ້ຽງ​ສັດຂອງ​ທ່ານ ໃນ​ລັດ​ຄາ​ລິ​ຟໍ​ເນຍ. ລາຍ​ການ​ອາ​ຫານປະກອບມີໄກ່​ງວງ, ໝາກ​ແຄ​ຣນ​ເບີ​ຣີ, ເຂົ້າ​ໜົມ​ເຮັດ​ດ້ວຍ​ແປ້ງ​ສາ​ລີ ຫລື cornbread ທີ່​ມີ​ນ້ຳ​ຊັອ​ສ​ ລາດ​ໜ້າ, ຍຳສະຫຼັດ, ມັນຝຣັ່ງບົດ ຫ​ລື mashed potatoes, ເຂົ້າຈີ່ກ້ອນ​ມົນ ຫລື monkey bread, ໝາກ​ຖົ່ວ​ກູ​ແວ ກັບໝາກ​ອອ​ລມອນ, ແລະເຂົ້າ​ໜົມ​ພາຍ​ໝາກ​ອຶລາດ​ໜ້າ​ດ້ວຍຄີມ​ທີ່​ເປັນ​ໂຟມ.

ໃນປີ 1996, ປະທານາທິບໍດີບີ​ລ ຄ​ລິນ​ຕັນ ມີ​ຄວາມ​ມ່ວນ​ຊື່ນ​ໄປກັບການສະ​ຫລອງ​ບຸນ Thanksgiving ຢູ່ກັບຄອບຄົວ ແລະຫມູ່ເພື່ອນຂອງ​ເພິ່ນຢູ່ແຄມ​ເດ​ວິດ ບ່ອນທີ່ພວກ​ເພິ່ນກິນ​ໄກ່​ງວງ​ຍັດ​ໃສ້​ ດ້ວຍເຂົ້າຈີ່ທີ່​ເອືອບເຄື່ອງ​ປຸງ​ຫລາຍ​ຢ່າງ; ນ້ຳຊ​ອັ​ສ​ລາດ​ໜ້າເຮັດ​ດ້ວຍ​ເຄື່ອງ​ໃນໄກ່; ມັນຝຣັ່ງບົດ ຫ​ລື mashed potatoes; ມັນ​ດ້າງ; ຖົ່ວ​ຂຽວ; ວຸ້ນ​ທີ່​ເຮັດ​ດ້ວຍໝາກ​ແຄ​ຣນ​ເບີ​ຣີ​, ຖາດຂອງດອງທີ່​ແຊບ​ນົວ, ຜັກ​ເຊ​ເລ​ຣີ (celery), ຫມາກເລັ່ນ, ຜັກບົ່ວຂຽວ, ໝາກ​ໂອ​ລີ​ຟສີຂຽວແລະສີດໍາ, ແລະຫົວ​ແຄ​ຣັອດ; ຫມາກໄມ້​ລ​ວມ​ມິດ; ກວນໝາກ​ແຄ​ຣນ​ເບີ​ຣີ; ແລະເຂົ້າ​ໜົມ​ພາຍ​ເຮັດ​ດ້ວຍໝາກກໍ່​ພີ​ແຄນ (pecan) ແລະເຂົ້າ​ໜົມ​ພາຍໝາກ​ອຶ.

​ອ່ານ​ຂ່າວນີ້​ເພີ້​ມ​ເປັນ​ພາ​ສາ​ອັງ​ກິດ​ຢູ່​ລຸ່ມນີ້:

Most Americans don't have oysters on their Thanksgiving table, but, for a time, the mollusks were a key ingredient on the White House holiday menu.
"Oyster stuffing and various oyster elements were always included, especially in the later 19th century. Oysters were very popular," says Lina Mann, a historian with the White House Historical Association. "I think that the location of Washington, D.C., near the Chesapeake Bay, which was a huge oyster hub, made it more of a regional sort of thing, but that has died out over the years."
In addition to oysters, White House Thanksgiving meals have included other regional foods such as rockfish from the Potomac River, turtles from Maryland's Eastern Shore and cranberries from Massachusetts. ((https://www.whitehousehistory.org/press-room/press-backgrounders/history-of-white-house-thanksgiving-traditions))
Because the holiday is often a more private affair, the White House Thanksgiving menu is not set. Presidential families often spend the day away from the White House, either out of town at their own private homes or at the Camp David presidential retreat in Maryland.
In 1985, President Ronald Reagan spent Thanksgiving at his California ranch. The menu included turkey, cranberries, cornbread dressing, salad, mashed potatoes, monkey bread, string beans with almonds, and pumpkin pie topped with whipped cream.
In 1996, President Bill Clinton enjoyed Thanksgiving with family and friends at Camp David, where they ate turkey; dressing with bread stuffing; giblet gravy; mashed potatoes; sweet potatoes; green beans; cranberry mold; a relish tray of pickles, celery, tomatoes, green onions, green and black olives, and carrots; fruit salad; cranberry salad; and pecan and pumpkin pies.

In 2007, also at Camp David, President George W. Bush and family feasted on a meal that included turkey, jellied cranberry molds, whipped sweet potato soufflé and pumpkin mousse trifle.


No matter where the commander in chief spends the holiday, turkey is usually on the menu and has been since the 1870s.
"You have a man named Horace Vose, who is the quote, "poultry king of Rhode Island," and he starts sending, in 1873, all of these turkeys to the White House," Mann says. "He does that for Christmas and Thanksgiving, and he does it for 40 years until he dies in 1913. So, there is this kind of precedent of the public sending presidents various birds to their table."
But people haven't always sent poultry. In 1926, President Calvin Coolidge received an unusual offering from a supporter in Mississippi.

"They were sent a raccoon that was supposed to be served on his Thanksgiving table," Mann says. "But the Coolidge family decided they didn't want to eat the raccoon. So instead, they ended up making her a family pet. They named her Rebecca and then eventually Coolidge, for Christmas that year, got her a collar that said, 'White House Raccoon' on it."


What presidents eat for Thanksgiving can also depend on what is going on in the country. In 1917, during World War I, President Woodrow Wilson remained in Washington and focused on having a more economical Thanksgiving.
"So, they're eating cream of oyster soup with turkey trimmings and vegetables, pumpkin pie for the very simple menu," Mann says. "First Lady Edith Wilson wanted to abide by various food conservation programs that were spearheaded at the time."
There were also more austere Thanksgivings during the Great Depression and World War II. In 1942, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and his family dined on "clam cocktail, clear soup, roast turkey with chestnut stuffing and cranberry sauce, Spanish corn, small sausages and beans, sweet potato cones, grapefruit salad, pumpkin pie and cheese, coffee, and ice cream." ((https://www.whitehousehistory.org/press-room/press-timelines/thanksgiving-at-the-white-house))
This year, President Joe Biden and first lady Jill Biden are spending Thanksgiving on the Massachusetts island of Nantucket, a family tradition since 1975. The first lady recently shared Thanksgiving recipes, including her grandmother's savory stuffing featuring stale Italian bread, with the Food Network. ((https://www.foodnetwork.com/shows/white-house-thanksgiving/episodes/white-house-thanksgiving))

"Food is love — and gathering together this year for Thanksgiving is healing for our hearts," Jill Biden said. "The family recipes passed down through the generations, the fun traditions that continue, and the meaningful blessings shared, all keep me filled with gratitude." ((https://www.foodnetwork.com/fn-dish/shows/11/a-white-house-thanksgiving))

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