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ພະລັງງານແສງອາທິດ ອາດເປັນໄພຂົ່ມຂູ່ ຕໍ່ພະລັງງານໄຟຟ້າຈາກເຂື່ອນ ໃນຂົງເຂດ ແມ່ນ້ຳຂອງ


ພະລັງງານແສງອາທິດ

ໂຄງການພະລັງງານ ​ແສງ​ອາທິດ ​ແລະລົມ ​ແມ່ນ​ເປັນ​ສິ່ງ​ທີ່​ທ້າ​ທາຍ ຢ່າງໃຫຍ່ ຕໍ່​ພະລັງ
ງານນໍ້າໃນ​ຂົງ​ເຂດ​ແມ່ນໍ້າ​ຂອງ​ ໃນ​ເອ​ເຊຍ​ອາຄະ​ເນ ຊຶ່ງ​ວັນນະ​ສອນ​ ຈະນຳ​ລາຍລະ​ອຽດ
ມາສະ​ເໜີທ່ານ ​ໃນ​ອັນ​ດັບ​ຕໍ່​ໄປ.

ສັນຍາຕ່າງໆດ້ານພະລັງງານ​ລົມ​ແລະພະລັງງານ​ແສງ​ອາທິດ ​ໃນຈຳ​ນວນຫຼາຍ​ພັນ
​ເມ​ກາ​ວັດ ​ໃນ​ຂົງ​ເຂດ​ແມ່​ນໍ້າຂອງ ​ແມ່ນ​ໄດ້ເຊັນກັນ​ແລ້ວ ຊຶ່ງ​ເປັນ​ການ​ທ້າ​ທາຍທາງ​
ການ​ເງິນ​ຢ່າງ​ໃຫຽ່ຫຼວງ ຕໍ່ໂຄງການເຄື່ອນ​ໄຟຟ້າ ​ໃນ​ແມ່​ນ້ຳ, ອີງຕາມນັກ​ຊ່ຽວຊານ
​ທາງ​ດ້ານພະລັງງານ ​ທີ່​ກ່າວ​ຕໍ່​ກອງ​ປະ​ຊຸມກ່ຽວກັບ​ແມ່​ນ້ຳຄັ້ງ​ສຳຄັນ ​ໃນ​ສັບປະດາ
​ແລ້ວ​ນີ້.

ການ​ໂຈະ​ໄວ້​ ຍ້ອນການ​ຕັດສິນ​ໃຈ​ຂອງ​ລັດຖະບານ​ໄທ ຫວ່າງ​ມໍ່ໆ​ມາ​ນີ້ ​ທີ່ເລື່ອນຊື້​
ພະລັງງານ​ໄຟຟ້າ​ຈາກເຄື່ອນ​ໃນ​ແມ່ນໍ້າ​ຂອງນັ້ນ, ພວກສະແຫວງຫາພະລັງງານ
​ສະອາດແລະ​ພວກ​ນັກ​ເສດຖະສາດ ​ໄດ້​ກ່າວ​ໃນ​ກອງ​ປະຊຸມ​ສູງ​ສຸດແມ່ນໍ້າ​ຂອງ​ ຄັ້ງ​ທີ
3 ວ່າ ຕະຫຼາດ​ພະລັງງານ​ໃນ​ຂົງ​ເຂດ ​ແມ່ນໄດ້ຕົກມາ​ເຖິງ​ຈຸດບັນຈົບ​ຂອງ​ວິວັດທະນາ​
ການດ້ານ​ເທັກ​ໂນ​ໂລ​ຈີແລ້ວ.

ທ່ານ ​ໄບຣ​ເອັນ ​ໄອເລີ (Brian Eyler) ຜູ້ອຳນວຍການ ​ຈາກ​ສູນ​ກາງ​ສຕິ​ມຊັນ ເອ​ເຊຍ
ອາຄະ​ເນ (Stimson Center’s Southeast Asia Program) ​ໄດ້​ກ່າວ​ວ່າ ສັນຍາ
ຈາກ​ພະລັງງານ​ລົມ​ແລະ​ແສງ​ອາທິດ ຄວາມແຮງ 6 ​ພັນ​ເມ​ກາ​ວັດ ໄດ້​ເຊັນ​ກັນແລ້ວ
​ໃນ​ກຳປູເຈຍ, ຫວຽດນາມ ​ໄທ ​ແລະ​ລາວ ​ໃນ​ຮອບ 6 ​ເດືອນ​ຜ່ານ​ມາ​ນີ້.

“​ໃນ​ເດືອ​ນມັງກອນ 2017 ນີ້, ຄະນະ​ຂອງ​ຂ້າພະ​ເຈົ້າ ​ໄດ້​ໄປ​ຢ້ຽມຢາມ​ໂຮງງານ
​ໄຟຟ້າທີ່​ກຳ​ປູ​ເຈຍ ແລ້ວໃຫ້ຄຳແນະນຳວ່າ ​ໃຫ້​ເອົາພະລັງງານ​ເສ​ງອາທິດ​ແລະ
ພະລັງງານ​ລົມປະກອບສ່ວນເຂົ້າ​ຫຼາຍ​ຂຶ້ນ ໃນແຜນ​ພັດທະນາ ຊຶ່ງທ່ານກ່າວ​ວ່າ
ອັນ​ນັ້ນ ເວົ້າແທ້ແລ້ວ ແມ່ນບໍ່ໄດ້ຍົກຂຶ້ນມາສົນທະນາກັນເລີຍ ​ໃນ​ເດືອນ​ມັງ​ກອນ
ປີ 2017.”

“​ໃນນຶ່ງ​ປີຕໍ່ມາ ກຳປູ​ເຈຍ ​ກໍ​ໄດ້ປະຕິຮູບ​ໃໝ່ໝົດ ​ລະບຽບ​ການດ້ານ​ພະລັງງານ
ຂອງຕົນ ​ໂດຍຕິດຕັ້ງພະລັງງານແສງ​ອາທິດໃສ່ຢ່າງໃຫຽ່ ​ພາຍ​ໃນ​ປະ​ເທດ. ​
ຖ້າຫາກ​ວ່າ​ກຳປູ​ເຈຍເຮັດ ແນ່ນອນ ທ່ານ​ຄວນເຊື່ອໄດ້ໂລດ​ວ່າ ປະ​ເທດ​ອື່ນ ​
ໃນ​ຂົງ​ເຂດກໍ​ຈະ​ເຮັດ​ຕາມ.”

ທ່ານນາງ ຮັນ​ຈັງ ລີ (Hyunjung Lee) ນັກ​ເສດຖະສາດ​ດ້ານ​ພະລັງງານ​ອາວຸ​ໂສ
ຂອງ​ທະນາຄານ​ພັດທະນາ​ເອ​ເຊຍ ຫຼື ADB ພາກ​ພື້ນ​ເອ​ເຊຍ​ອາຄະ​ເນ ​ໄດ້​ກ່າວ​ວ່າ ພະລັງງານທັງຫຼາຍ ​ເຊັ່ນພະລັງງານລົມ​ແລະ​ແສງ​ອາທິດ “ຈະເປັນ​ທີ່​ນິຍົມ​ຢ່າງ​ໃຫຍ່
​ຫຼວງໃນ​ຂົງ​ເຂດ ​ຕາມຄວາມ​ຮູ້ສຶກ​ຂອງ​ຂ້າພະ​ເຈົ້າ.​”

​ທ່ານ​ນາງ​ເວົ້າ​ວ່າ “ບັນຍາກາດ​ໃນ​ຂົງ​ເຂດ ​ແມ່ນ​ໄດ້​ມີ​ການ​ປ່ຽນ​ແປງ ​ໃນ​ຮອບ​ນຶ່ງ​ປີ
ຜ່ານມານີ້ ສະ​ນັ້ນ ພວກ​ເຮົາ ​ຈຶ່ງໄດ້​ເຫັນ​ການ​ພັດ​ມະ​ນາ​ຢ່າງຫຼວງຫຼາ​ຍ ​ໃນດ້ານ
ພະລັງງານລົມ​ແລະແສງ​ອາທິດ ​ໃນຂົງ​ເຂດ ​ແລະມັນ​ກໍ​ຈະ​ກາຍ​ມາ​ເປັນຄວາມ​ຈິງ
ແທ້ໆ ເປັນຄວາມຈິງອີ່ຫຼີ ໂດຍບໍ່​ຕ້ອງ​ກັບ​ໄປຫາພະລັງງານ​ນໍ້າອີກ, ມັນ​ຄວນ​ຈະ​ມີ
​ການປະສົມ​ປະສານກັນນີ້ຫຼາຍຂຶ້ນຕື່ມ.”

ທ່ານນາງ ລີ ກ່າວ​ວ່າ ທະນາຄານ​ພັດທະນາ​ເອ​ເຊຍ ​ກຳລັງ​ຈັດ​ຕັ້ງ​ສູນ​ກາງ​ພະລັງ​
ງານ​ເພື່ອ​ປະສານ​ງານ​ໃນ​ຂົງ​ເຂດ ຮຽນ​ແບບ​ຈາກ​ໂຄງການ​ປະສົບ​ຜົນ​ສຳ​ເລັດ​ໃນ​
ພາກ​ໃຕ້ຂອງອາ​ຟຣິກາ ​ເຂົ້າ​ໃນ​ການ​ຕະຫຼາດ​ຂອງ​ຂົງ​ເຂດ.

ສະພາ MRC ທີ່ສ້າງ​ຕັ້ງ​ຂຶ້ນ​ມາ​ໄດ້ 6 ປີ​ແລ້ວ ນັ້ນ ​ໄດ້​ສຶກສາເບິ່ງ ​ໂຄງການ​ພັດທະນາ
ສຳ​ລັບ​ແມ່​ນໍ້າຂອງ ທີ່​ເພັ່ງ​ເລັງ​ໃສ່ ​ຢູ່ໃນ​ກອງ​ປະຊຸ​ມສຸດ​ຍອດ​ນັ້ນ ​ທີ່ສະເໜີແນະ​ວ່າ
ຈະມີຜົນ​ກະທົບ​ທີ່​ຮ້າຍ​ແຮງ​ຕໍ່​ລະບົບ​ນິ​ເວດ​ຂອງແມ່​ນ້ຳ ຖ້າ​ຫາກ​ວ່າ ທັງ​ໝົດ 11 ໂຄງ
ການໃນ​ແມ່​ນ້ຳ ​ໃຫຽ່ທີ່ີໄດ້ວາງ​ແຜນ​ໄວ້ ​ແລະ​ອີກຫຼາຍ​ກວ່າ 100 ພະລັງ​ໄຟຟ້າໃນສາ
ຂາຕ່າງໆຫາກ​ສ້າງ​ຂຶ້ນ.

​ໃນ​ລາຍ​ງານ​ສະບັບ​ນຶ່ງ ​ໄດ້​ນຳ​ອອກ​ເຜີຍ​ແຜ່ ​ໃນ​ເດືອນ​ມັງກອນ ຜ່ານ​ມາ​ນີ້​ ອົງການ
​ພະລັງງານ​ທົດ​ແທນ​ນາໆ​ຊາດ ຫຼື (International Renewable Energy Agency)
ໄດ້ພົບເຫັນວ່າ ຄ່າ​ໄຟຟ້າ​ໃນ​ລະດັບ​ທີ່​ໃຊ້​ໃນ​ຄົວ​ເຮືອນ​ຈາກ​ພະລັງງານ​ແສງ​ອາທິດ ​
ໄດ້​ຫຼຸດ​ລົງ ​73 ເປີ​ເຊັນ ຈາກ ປີ 2010 ຫາ​ປີ 2017 ​ແລະ​ຄາດ​ວ່າຈະ​ຫຼຸດ​ລົງ​ອີກເຄິ່ງນຶ່ງ​
ໃນປີ 2020.

​ໃນ​ການ​ປະ​ເມີນ​ລາຄາ ຄ່າ​ຂອງພະລັງງານ​ແສງ​ອາທິດ ຈະ​ຫຼຸດລົງ​ຕ່ຳ​ກວ່າ ພະລັງ​ງານ​
ຈາກ​ພະລັງ​ນ້ຳ ພາຍ​ໃນ​ປີ 2020 ເປັນເວລາດົນກວ່າຕັ້ງຫຼາຍ ກ່ອນທີ່​ໂຄງການເຂື່ອນ
ຕ່າງໆຂອງແມ່ນໍ້າຂອງ ຈະອອກມາ​ທາງ​ອອນ​ໄລນ໌.

ພະລັງງານ​ແສງ​ອາທິດ ​ໃນ​ທົ່ວ​ໂລກ ສາມາດ​ທີ່​ຈະ​ຂະຫຍາຍອອກ 32 ​ເປີ​ເຊັນ ​
ເພີ່ມໃສ່ 94 ກີ​ກາ​ວັດ ​ໃນ​ປີ 2017 ​ໃນ​ຂະນະ​ທີ່​ພະລັງງານ​ທົດ​ແທນ ​ທັງ​ໝົດ ​ໄດ້​ເພີ່ມ
​ຂຶ້ນແລ້ວ 8.3 ​ເປີ​ເຊັນ. ການ​ສຳ​ຫຼວດຂອງອົງການ IREA ​ໄດ້​ພົບ​ເຫັນ 15 ພັນ ຂໍ້​ມູນ.
ພະລັງງານ ທົດ​ແທນ ​ແລະ ພະລັງງານ​ແສງ​ອາທິດ ​ໄດ້​ຂະຫຍາຍຕົວອອກ​ຢ່າງ​ວ່ອງໄວ
​ໃນ​ເອ​ເຊຍຫຼາຍ

​ກວ່າ​ທຸກໆ​ແຫ່ງ​ໃນ​ໂລກ ​ໃນ​ຂະນະ​ທີ່​ພະລັງງານຈາກ​ພະລັງ​ນ້ຳ ທີ່​ໄດ້​ຮັບ​ການ​ຮັບ​ເໝົາ
​ໃຫ້​ສ້າງ​ຂຶ້ນ​ນັ້ນ​ ແມ່ນ​ຫຼຸດ​ລົງ ​ໃນ​ຮອບ​ນຶ່ງ​ທົດ​ສະ​ວັດ​ຜ່ານ​ມາ.

ທ່ານນາງ ວັງ ​ເວິນ​ລິງ (Wang Wenling) ອາຈານ​ສອນ​ຈາກສະ​ຖາ​ບັນ​ແມ່​ນ້ຳ​ນາໆ​
ຊາດ ​ແລະ​ການ​ປົກ​ປັກ​ຮັກສາ​ລະບົບ​ນິ​ເວດ ຈາກ​ມະຫາວິທະຍາ​ໄລ ຢຸນນານ ​ກ່າວ​ວ່າ

ທ່ານ​ນາງ ​ໄດ້​ເຫັນ​ກັບຕາ ວ່າ ລາຄາ​ຈາກ​ເທັກ​ໂທ​ໂລ​ຈີ​ຂອງພະລັງງານ​ແສງ​ອາທິດ ​
ແມ່ນ​ໄດ້​ຫຼຸດ​ລົງ ​ໃນການ​ຢ້ຽມຢາມ​ລັດ​ຄາ​ໂລ​ໄລ​ນາ​ເໜືອ ​ໃນ​ສະຫະລັດ ຫວ່າງ​ມໍ່ໆ​ມາ​ນີ້.

ທ່ານ​ນາງ ​ໄດ້​ກ່າວວ່າ“ຂ້າພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ຕົກ​ໃຈທີ່ວ່າ ລາຄາ​ຂອງພະລັງງານ​ແສງ​ອາທິດ
ຂອງພວກ​ເຂົາ​ເຈົ້າ ຕໍ່​ຫົວໜ່ວຍ ​ແມ່ນ​ຖືກ​ກວ່າ ພະລັງງານ​ນ້ຳ. ຂ້າພະ​ເຈົ້າ​ບໍ່​ຮູ້​ວ່າ​
ພວກ​ເຂົາເຈົ້າ​ເຮັດ​ໄດ້​ຈັ່ງ​ໃດ. ມັນ​ເກືອບ​ວ່າ​ເປັນ​ໄປ​ບໍ່​ໄດ້​ສຳ​ຫຼັບ​ຂ້າພະ​ເຈົ້າ ລາຄາ​ຂອງພວກເຂົາເຈົ້າ​ແມ່ນ ປະມານ 15 ​ເປີ​ເຊັນ ຂອງ​ລາຄາ​ໃນ​ຈີນ.”


Solar and wind power projects are making a big leap challenging hydro-electric power in the Mekong region of Southeast Asia.

Thousands of megawatts of wind and solar energy contracts in the Mekong region have been signed, seriously challenging the financial viability of major hydropower projects on the river, an energy expert told a landmark water conference last week.

Buoyed by a recent Thai government decision to delay a power purchase deal with a major mainstream Mekong dam, clean energy proponents and economists told the 3rdMekong River Commission Summit that the regional energy market was on the cusp of a technological revolution.

Brian Eyler, Director of the Stimson Center's Southeast Asia Program, said 6,000 megawatts worth of wind and solar contracts had been signed in Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand and Laos in the last six months.

"In January 2017 my team visited with Cambodia's energy plant making the suggestion of incorporating more solar and wind into the power development plan. That was basically off the table in January 2017," he said.

"In a year's time Cambodia has entirely restructured its energy sector to outlay the new set of regulations that will robustly deploy scaled solar within the country. And if Cambodia's doing it, you can bet that the other countries are doing it as well."

Hyunjung Lee, Senior Energy Economist at the Asian Development Bank's (ADB's) Southeast Asia Energy Division, said technologies such as wind and solar were "going to hit the region very significantly in my view."

"The atmosphere in the region has been changed actually in the past one year even," she said.

"So we see a lot of development can happen in solar and wind in the region and how it can happen actually in reality, not to repeat the experience of hydro it should have more integrated approaches," she said.

Lee said the ADB was working to set up a Regional Power Coordination Centre mimicking a highly successful project in Southern Africa to create an efficient, integrated regional market.

A six-year MRC Council Study on development plans for the Mekong, that was the focus of the summit, suggested catastrophic impacts to the health of the river system if all planned 11 mainstream and more than 100 tributary hydropower dams are built.

In a report handed down in January, the International Renewable Energy Agency found that the cost of electricity for utility scale solar had fallen by 73 percent from 2010 to 2017 and forecast it to halve again by 2020.

At that price trajectory, the cost of solar power would fall below hydropower by 2020, long before many planned Mekong dams go online.

Global solar capacity grew 32 percent, adding 94 gigawatts in 2017 while renewables across the board increased by 8.3 percent, the IREA survey of 15,000 data points found. Renewables and solar grew faster in Asia than anywhere else in the world while the amount of hydropower commissioned across the globe was the lowest in a decade.

Wang Wenling, an assistant professor at Yunnan University's Institute of International Rivers and Eco-Security, said she had just seen firsthand how far the price of solar technology had plummeted on a recent trip to North Carolina in the United States.

"I was super surprised how their solar power production cost per unit is actually cheaper than hydropower. I don't know how they make it, it's almost impossible for me but their cost is only about 15 percent of the cost in China," she said.

"So I think we have a lot of alternatives and it needs to be considered," she said.

Some participants, particularly from Laos and Cambodia, remained skeptical of the technology.

"I think we need some more figures," said a Cambodian member of the audience, raising concerns about stability. "We also think about some figure for the comparison between the occupation of the land of hydropower with solar energy," he said.

Jake Brunner, Program Coordinator for the International Union for Conservation of Nature, said the figures for solar were particularly attractive in Cambodia, where land remained relatively cheap while energy demand was high in neighboring southern Vietnam.

"We calculated that if you took one 10,000 hectare Economic Land Concession in Cambodia for example and you made some very conservative assumptions, you could generate about three gigwatts, which is pretty close to Cambodia's entire national consumption - not quite," he said.

Land is a particularly sensitive issue in Cambodia where rights group Licadho says more than half a million people have been affected by land conflicts.

Gregory Thomas, Executive Director of the Natural Heritage Institute, told the summit his organization had researched a solar photovoltaic alternative for Cambodia that didn't require any land at all.

Instead of building the massive planned Sambor dam on the Mekong mainstream, a "no dam alternative" study commissioned by the Cambodian government had recommended placing solar cells on the existing reservoir of the Lower Sesan II dam in Stung Treng.

"The advantage of integrating solar arrays on a hydropower reservoir that already exists is that you can use the unoccupied space on the reservoir without any land use conflicts whatsoever," he said.

"And of course the reservoir storage acts as a battery essentially to backstop the intermittent nature of the solar generation."

Such a project could be cost competitive and go online much quicker than a hydropower dam, with 100 megwatts deployable in year, he said.

Floating solar projects are being developed around the world, including in China where an enormous 150 megawatt installation on a lake that used to be a deserted coal mine is expected to go online in May powering some 15,000 homes.


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