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ປາ​ກິ​ສ​ຖານ ອອ​ກ​ລະ​ບຽບການ ຈຳ​ກັດ​ການ​ໃຊ້​ເວ​ທີສົນ​ທະ​ນາ ໃນ​ສື່​ສັງ​ຄົມ​ອອ​ນລາຍ


ຊາຍ​ຄົນ​ນຶ່ງກຳ​ລັງ​ກວດ​ເບິ່ງສື່​ສັງ​ຄົມ​ອອນ​ລາຍ​ໂດຍ​ໃຊ້​ຄອມ​ພິວ​ເຕີ ຢູ່​ໃນ​ສະ​ໂມ​ສອນອິນ​ເຕີ​ແນັດ​ແຫ່ງ​ນຶ່ງ ​ໃນ​ນະ​ຄອນອິ​ສ​ລາ​ມາ​ບັດ ຂອງ​ປາ​ສິກ​ຖານ​ໃນວັນ​ທີ 11 ສິງ​ຫາ, 2016

ປາ​ກິ​ສ​ຖານ ໄດ້ຮັບ​ຮອງ​ເອົາ​ກົດ​ລະ​ບຽບ​ໃໝ່​ຊຸດ​ນຶ່ງ ໃນ​ການຄຸ້ມຄອງ​ເວ​ທີ​ສົນ​ທະ​ນາ​ ໃນ​ສື່​ສັງ​ຄົມ​ອອນ​ລາຍ ຊຶ່ງ​ເປັນ​ການ​ເຄື່ອນ​ໄຫວ​ ທີ່​ພວກ​ຕຳ​ນິ​ວິ​ຈານ​ທັງ​ຫຼາຍ ​ປະ​ນາມ​ວ່າ ເປັນ​ການ​ໂຈມ​ຕີ​ຕໍ່ເສ​ລີ​ພາບ​ໃນ​ການ​ອອກ​ຂ່າວ ແລະ​ການ ປາກ​ເວົ້າ ຢູ່​ໃນ​ປະ​ເທດ​ດັ່ງ​ກ່າວ.

ກົດ​ລະ​ບຽບ​ດັ່ງ​ກ່າວທີ່​ວາງ​ອອກ​ໂດຍ​ລັດ​ຖະ​ບານ ໃນ​ວັນ​ພຸດ​ຜ່ານ​ມາ ໄດ້​ເຮັດ​ໃຫ້​ພວກ​ເຈົ້າ​ໜ້າ​ທີ່​ມີ​ອຳ​ນາດ​ເພີ້ມ​ຂຶ້ນ ໃນ​ການ​ປັບ​ໃໝ ຫລື​ເກືອດ​ຫ້າມ​ການ​ສົນ​ທະ​ນາ​ໃນ​ເວ​ທີ​ຂອງ​ສື່​ສັງ​ຄົມ​ອອນ​ລາຍ ສຳ​ລັບ​ເນື້ອ​ໄນຄຳ​ເວົ້າ​ຂອງ​ຜູ້ໃຊ້​ທັງ​ຫລາຍ. ບໍລິ​ສັດຕ່າງໆ ເຊັ່ນ Facebook (ທີ່​ເປັນ​ເຈົ້າ​ຂອງ WhatsApp), Twitter ແລະ Google (ທີ່​ເປັນ​ເຈົ້າ​ຂອງ YouTube) ຈະ​ຖືກຮຽກ​ຮ້ອງ​ໃຫ້ລຶບ​ເນື້ອ​ໃນ​ຢູ່​ໃນການ​ລົງຂ່າວ​ໃດໆ ທີ່​ພວກ​ເຈົ້າ​ໜ້າ​ທີ່​ປາ​ກິ​ສ​ຖານ​ຮູ້​ສຶກວ່າ “ຜິດ​ກົດ​ໝາຍນັ້ນ" ລົງ​ພາຍ​ໃນ 24 ຊົ່ວ​ໂມງ.

ເວົ້າ​ສະ​ເພາະ​ແລ້ວ, ບັນ​ດາ​ບໍ​ລິ​ສັດ​ເຫລົ່າ​ນີ້ ແມ່ນ​ມີ​ໜ້າ​ທີ່​ໃນ​ການໄຂ​ລະ​ຫັດ​ຂອງ ເນື້ອ​ໄນ ແລະ “ຂໍ້​ມູນ​ອື່ນ​ໃດໆທັງ​ໝົດ" ທີ່​ກ່ຽວ​ກັບ​ຄົນ​ໃຊ້​ສື່​ສັງ​ຄົມ​ອອນ​ລາຍທີ່​ຖືກ​ກ່າວ​ຫາ​ວ່າ​ ໄດ້​ເອົາວັດ​ຖຸທີ່ເປັນ​ການ "ໝິ່ນ​ປະ​ໝາດ​ສາ​ສະ​ໜາ" ຫລື ​ໃຊ້​ເນື້ອ​ໄນ "ທີ່​ກ່ຽວ​ຂ້ອງ​ກັບ​ການກໍ່​ການ​ຮ້າຍ, ຄວາມນິ​ຍົມຫົວແຮງ​ຈັດ, ຄຳ​ເວົ້າ​ທີ່​ເປັນ​ການ​ກຽດ​ຊັງ, ການ​ເຮັດ​ໃຫ້​ເສື່ອມເສຍ​ຊື່​ສຽງ, ຂ່າວ​ຂີ້​ຕົວະ, ການ​ຍຸ​ແຍ່​ໃຫ້​ກໍ່​ຄວາມ​ຮຸນ​ແຮງ ແລະຄວາມ​ໝັ້ນ​ຄົງ​ຂອງ​ຊາດ."

​ກົດ​ລະ​ບຽບ​ທີ່​ເອີ້ນ​ວ່າ ​ລະ​ບຽບການ​ປົກ​ປ້ອງ​ປະ​ຊາ​ຊົນ (ບໍ່​ໃຫ້​ຖືກ​ທຳ​ໃຫ້​ເສຍ​ຫາຍໂດຍ​ທາງ​ອອນ​ລາຍ) 2020, ຈະ​ຮຽກ​ຮ້ອງ​ໃຫ້​ບໍ​ລິ​ສັດ​ສື່​ສັງ​ຄົມ​ອອນ​ລາຍ​ຍັກ​ໃຫຍ່​ສ້າງ​ຕັ້ງ​ຫ້ອງ​ການ​ຜູ້​ຕາງ​ໜ້າ​ຂອງ​ຕົນຂຶ້ນ​ຢູ່​ໃນ​ປາ​ກິ​ສ​ຖານ​ພາຍ​ໃນ 3 ເດືອນ ແລະ​ໃຫ້​ແຕ່ງ​ຕັ້ງ​ຜູ້​ທີ່​ຮັບ​ຜິດ​ຊອບ​ໃນ​ການ​ຕິດ​ຕໍ່ພົວ​ພັນ ​ເພື່ອ​ຕອບ​ຄຳ​ຮ້ອງ​ທຸກຂອງ​ເຈົ້າ​ໜ້າ​ທີ່​ລັດ​ຖະ​ບານ​ທີ່​ກ່ຽວ​ຂ້ອງ.

ເຈົ້າ​ໜ້າ​ທີ່​ປາ​ກິ​ສ​ຖານ ໂດຍ​ຢູ່​ພາຍ​ໃຕ້​ກົດ​ລະ​ບຽບ​ນີ້ ຈະ​ມີ​ອຳ​ນາດເພີ້ມ​ຂຶ້ນ ໃນ​ການປິດການ​ໃຫ້​ບໍ​ລິ​ການ ແລະ​ເກັບ​ຄ່າ​ປັບ​ໃໝ​ຫລາຍເຖິງ 3.24 ລ້ານ​ກີບ. ບັນ​ດາ​ອົງ​ການສະ​ແຫວງ​ຫາ​ການ​ສະ​ໜັບ​ສະ​ໜຸນ​ເສ​ລີ​ພາບ​ຂອງ​ພົນ​ລະ​ເມືອງ​ໃນ​ທ້ອງ​ຖິ່ນ ແລະ​ສາ​ກົນ ໄດ້​ປະ​ນາມ​ກົດ​ລະ​ບຽບ​ດັ່ງ​ກ່າວວ່າ ​ເປັນ​ການ​ດຳ​ເນີນ​ຄວາມ​ພະ​ຍາ​ຍາມໃນ​ການ​ຮັບ​ມື​ຢ່າງ​ໜັກ ເພື່ອ​ເຮັດ​ໃຫ້​ການ​ຕໍ່​ຕ້ານລັດ​ຖະ​ບານ ມິດ​ງຽບ​ລົງແລະເຮັດ​ໃຫ້​ເສ​ລີ​ພາບ​ໃນ​ການ​ປາກ​ເວົ້າ​ຫລຸດ​ລົງ​ຢູ່​ໃນ​ປາ​ກິ​ສຖານ.
ຢູ່​ໃນ​ຖະ​ແຫລງ​ການ​ສະ​ບັບ​ນຶ່ງ, ກຳ​ມະ​ການ​ປົກ​ປ້ອງນັກ​ຂ່າວ ຫລື CPJ ທີ່​ມີ​ສຳ​ນັກ​ງານ​ຕັ້ງ​ຢູ່​ໃນ​ສະ​ຫະ​ລັດ​ນັ້ນ ໄດ້​ຕຳ​ໜິ​ລັດ​ຖະ​ບານປາ​ກິ​ສ​ຖານທີ່ຮັບ​ຮອງ​ເອົາ ມາດ​ຕະ​ການ​ຄຸ້ມ​ຄອງ​ສື່​ສັງ​ຄົມ​ອອນ​ລາຍ "ແບບ​ປິດ​ລັບ" ໂດຍ​ໄດ້​ຮຽກ​ຮ້ອງ​ໃຫ້​ເຂົາ​ເຈົ້າລົບ​ລ້າງ​ມັນ​ໃນ​ທັນ​ທີ​ທັນ​ໃດ.

ອ່ານ​ຂ່​າວນີ້​ເພີ້ມ​ເປັນ​ພາ​ສາອ​ັງ​ກິດ​ຢູ່​ຂ້າ​ລຸ່ມນີ້

Pakistan has approved a set of new rules to regulate all social media platforms, a move critics denounced as an attack on freedom of the press and free speech in the country.

The regulations, issued by the federal government on Wednesday, empower authorities to fine or ban social media platforms over their users’ content. Companies such as Facebook (which owns WhatsApp), Twitter and Google (which owns YouTube) will be required to remove within 24 hours content Pakistani authorities deem “unlawful.”

Specifically, the companies are tasked with providing decrypted content and “any other information” about users accused of posting “blasphemous” material or content “related to terrorism, extremism, hate speech, defamation, fake news, incitement to violence and national security.”

The regulations, named Citizen Protection (Against Online Harm) Rules 2020, will require social media giants to establish representative offices in Pakistan within three months and appoint a point person to answer complaints filed by relevant government officials.

Pakistani authorities, under the new regulations, will be empowered to block services and levy fines of up to $3.24 million.

Rollback demanded

Local and international civil liberties advocates have denounced the regulations as a heavy-handed attempt to silence political opposition and curtail freedom of expression in Pakistan.

In a statement, the U.S.-based Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) criticized the Pakistani government for enacting “in secret” the social media regulatory measures, demanding they should immediately be rolled back.

“These stringent but vague rules approved by Pakistan’s federal cabinet threaten the ability of journalists to report the news and communicate with their sources,” said Steven Butler, CPJ’s Asia program coordinator.

Pakistani officials rejected the criticism, insisting the regulations are meant to hold social media companies accountable within the country’s legal and economic framework.

Firdous Ashsiq Awan, special assistant to the prime minister on information and broadcasting, told reporters Thursday that the regulations were aimed at protecting citizens’ interests and national integrity against fake and baseless social media content.

Until now, she said, the government had been unable to identify “who was creating fake pages and harming our socio-cultural and religious values” through social media platforms. Awan said that with the new authority, extremists spreading hate on the basis of “religion and race” would be deterred and exposed.

She noted an estimated 73% of Pakistanis are internet users. “We will not take any step that is against the interest of these users,” Awan said, adding that social media companies can challenge the regulations in court.

Broader effort urged

CPJ’s Butler called for the Pakistani government to put the rules on hold and seek broad consultations with legislators and civil society, including the media, on how to proceed with social media regulation.

Senator Mustafa Nawaz Khokhar, a member of the opposition Pakistan People’s Party and chair of the Senate Human Rights Committee, told CPJ the rules were seen “as an attempt to further restrict space of free discourse in Pakistan.” Khokhar vowed his party would oppose the measures in the parliament and the courts.

The Digital Rights Foundation, a local organization promoting internet safety, denounced the social media rules as a blatant violation of free speech provisions in Pakistan’s constitution, saying the move would lead to self-censorship.

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