ລິ້ງ ສຳຫລັບເຂົ້າຫາ

ສະພາບການຂອງ ເສລີພາບໃນວົງການຂ່າວ ຂອງໂລກ ຊຸດໂຊມລົງ ຢ່າງຫຼວງຫຼາຍ ໃນປີ 2014


​ເສລີພາບຂອງວົງ​ການ​ຂ່າວໃນໂລກ ​ໄດ້​ຫລຸດ​ລົງ​ໃນ​ປີ​ແລ້ວ​ນີ້ ສູ່​
ລະດັບ​ຕໍ່າ​ສຸດ ​ໃນ​ຮອບ​ດົນ​ກວ່າ​ໜຶ່ງ​ທົດ​ສະ​ວັດ ​ອີງ​ຕາມ​ລາຍ​ງານ
​ສະບັບ​ໜຶ່ງ​ທີ່​ອອກ​ອອກເຜີຍ​ແຜ່ເມື່ອ​ທ້າຍ​ເດືອນ​ເມສາ​ຜ່ານມາ ​
ໂດຍອົງການ​ຕິດຕາມ​ເບິ່ງ​ສະພາບ​ການ​ດ້ານສິດທິ​ມະນຸດນາໆ​ຊາດ
Freedom House. ນັກ​ຂ່າວ​ວີ​ໂອ​ເອ William Gallo ມີ​ລາຍ​ລະ
ອຽດ ດັ່ງສິງ​ຈະ​ນຳ​ມາສະ​ເໜີທ່ານ.

ລາຍ​ງານການ​ສຳ​ຫລວດ​ປະຈຳ​ປີ​ຂອງ​ອົງການ Freedom House ກ່າວ​ວ່າ ບັນດາ​ນັກ​ຂ່າວ​ໃນ​ທົ່ວ​ໂລກ ປະ​ເຊີນ​ກັບ​ຂໍ້​ຈຳກັດຮັດ​ແຄບ​ນາໆ​ປະການ ​ທີ່​ວາງ​ຕໍ່ເຂົາເຈົ້າ​ໂດຍ​ກຳລັງ
ຕ່າງໆ ຮວມ​ທັງ​ພວກ​ລັດຖະບານ​ຜະ​ເດັດ​ການ​ ພວກ​ກໍ່​ການ​ຮ້າຍ ​ແລະ​ເຈົ້າ​ຂອງ​ສື່​ມວນ​ຊົນ​ທີ່ຫວັງຜົນ​ປະ​ໂຫຍ​ດ ດ້ານ​ທຸລະ​ກິດ.

ພວກທີ່​ກະທຳ​ຜິດ​ຮ້າຍ​ແຮງ​ທີ່​ສຸດ​ໃນ​ບັນຊີ​ຂອງອົງການ Freedom House ​ທີ່​ຈັດ​ລະດັບ
199 ປະ​ເທດ​ຫຼື​ດິນ​ແດນ ​ກໍແມ່ນ​ເກົາຫຼີ​ເໜືອ Uzbekistan, Turmenistan, Belarus, ຄິວ​ບາ ຊີ​ເຣຍ ອີຣ່ານ ​ແລະ​ໄຄຣ​ເມຍ. ນໍ​ເວ ສະ​ວີ​ເດັນ ​ແລະ Belgium ​ແມ່ນ​ຢູ່​ໃນອັນ​ດັບ
ທີ່​ສູງ​ສຸດຢູ່​ໃນ​ບັນຊີ.

​ອົງການ Freedom House ກ່າວ​ວ່າ ເວົ້າ​ລວ​ມ​ແລ້ວ ມີ​ພຽງ​ແຕ່ 14 ​ເປີ​ເຊັນ​ເທົ່າ​ນັ້ນ​ຂອງ​ປະຊາກອນ​ໂລກ ທີ່ອາ​ໄສ​ຢູ່​ໃນ​ພວກ​ປະ​ເທດ​ທີ່​ເສລີ “ບ່ອນ​ທີ່​ມີການ​ລາຍ​ງານ​ຂ່າວ​ດ້ານ​ການ​ເມືອງ​ທີ່​ແຂງ​ແຮງ ຄວາມ​ປອດ​ໄພ​ຂອງ​ນັກ​ຂ່າວໄດ້​ຮັບການ​ຄ້ຳປະກັນ ການ​ແຊກ​ແຊງຂອງ​ລັດ​ເຂົ້າ​ໃນ​ກິດຈະການ​ສື່​ມວນ​ຊົນມີ​ໜ້ອຍ ​ແລະ​ວົງ​ການ​ຂ່າວ​ບໍ່​ຕົກຢູ່​ພາຍ​ໃຕ້​ຄວາມ​ກົດ​ດັນ​ທາງ​ດ້ານ​ກົດໝາຍ​ ຫຼື​ເສດຖະກິດທີ່​ໜັກໜ່ວງ.”

ລາຍ​ງານສະ​ບັບນີ້ ​ໃຫ້​ເຫດຜົນ ກ່ຽວ​ກັບການ​ຕົກ​ຕ່ຳ​ລົງ​ໃນ​ເສລີພາບ​ຂອງວົງ​ການ​ຂ່າວ​ ວ່າ​ເປັນ​ຍ້ອນການ​ເພີ້​ມທະວີ​ຂຶ້ນ​ຂອງ​ກົດໝາຍ​ທີ່ ຈຳກັດ​ຮັດ​ແຄບຕໍ່​ວົງ​ການ​ຂ່າວ ​ແລະວ່າ ມີ​ຢູ່​ເລື້ອຍໆ​ທີ່ພວກ​ກົດໝາຍ​ເຫຼົ່າ​ນີ້ ໄດ້​ຖືກຮັບ​ຜ່ານເອົາຢ່າງໂຈ່ງ​ແຈ້ງ​ ຍ້ອນ​ເຫດຜົນທາງ​ດ້ານ​ຄວາມ​ປອດ​ໄພ​ແຫ່ງ​ຊາດ.

ອີກ​ເຫດຜົນ​ໜຶ່ງ​ທີ່ຖືກອ້າງ​ວ່າ ​ເປັນສາ​ເຫດ​ຂອງ​ການ​ຊຸດ​ໂຊມ​ລົງ​ຂອງເສລີພາບ​ສື່​ມວນ​ຊົນ ກໍ​ຄື​ຄວາມ​ບໍ່​ສາມາດ​ຂອງ​ພວກ​ນັກ​ຂ່າວທ້ອງ​ຖິ່ນ ​ແລະ​ນັກ​ຂ່າວ​ຕ່າງປະ​ເທດ ​ໃນ​ການເຂົ້າ​ຫາແລະໄປລາຍ​ງານຂ່າວ​ຢ່າງ​ເສລີ​ໄດ້ ​ໃນຫຼາຍໆເຂດ ​ເຊັ່ນຢູ່​ບອ່ນທີ່​ມີ​ການ​ປະ​ທ້ວງ ​ແລະ​ໃນ​ເຂດ​ສົງຄາມ​ນັ້ນ.

ລາຍ​ງານ​ສະບັບ​ນີ້ ເວົ້າ​ໃນ​ທາງ​ລົບ​ເປັນ​ສ່ວນໃຫຍ່ ກ່ຽວ​ກັບ​ເຫດ​ການ​ ​ຕ່າງໆ​ທີ່​ເກີດ​ຂຶ້ນ​ໃນ
ພາກ​ຕາ​ເວັນ​ອອກາງ ​ແລະ​ໃນ​ອາ​ຟຣິກາ​ເໜືອ ບ່ອນ​ທີ່​ຄື້ນຟອງ​ແຫ່ງ​ການ​ປະ​ທ້ວງ​ ທີ່ເອີ້ນວ່າ
ລະດູບານ​ໃໝ່​ອາຫຣັບ ຫຼື Arab Spring ບໍ່​ໄດ້ຍັງ​ຜົນ​ຫຍັງໃຫ້​ເກີດ​ຄວາມ​ກ້າວໜ້າຫລາຍ
ປານ​ໃດ ​ໃນ​ຮູບ​ຂອງການ​ມີເສລີພາບ​ເພີ້​ມຂຶ້ນ​ນັ້ນ.

ອົງການ Freedom House ​ເວົ້າ​ວ່າ “ຫຼັງ​ຈາກໄດ້​ຮັບ​ຄວາມ​ກ້າວໜ້າ​ຄັ້ງ​ປະຫວັດສາດ​
ໃນ​ພາກ​ຕາ​ເວັນ​ອອກ​ກາງ​ໃນ​ປີ 2011 ນັ້ນ​ແລ້ວ ກໍມີ​ພຽງ​ປະ​ເທດ​ດຽວ​ເທົ່າ​ນັ້ນ ທີ່​ສືບ​ຕໍ່​ທຳ​ຄວາມ​ຄືບ​ໜ້າໄປ​ສູ່​ການບັນລຸ​ຄຳ ໝັ້ນ​ສັນຍາ​ຂອງ Arab Spring. ປະ​ເທດນັ້ນ​ກໍ​ຄື Tunisia ທີ່ໄດ້ທຳ​ຄວາມ​ກ້າວໜ້າ​ຫລາຍ​ກ່ວາ​ປະ​ເທດ​ອາຫຣັບອື່ນໃດ ​ໃນ​ໄລຍະ​ໜຶ່ງ​ທົດ​ສະ​ວັດ​ປາຍ​ຜ່ານ​ມາ ​ແຕ່​ລາຍ​ງານ​ກ່າວ​ວ່າ ​ເຖິງ​ຢ່າງ​ໃດ Tunisia ກໍ ຍັງ​ເສລີ​ເປັນ​ບາງ​ສ່ວນ​ເທົ່າ​ນັ້ນ.”

ມີ​ພຽງ​ແຕ່ 2 ​ເປີ​ເຊັນ​ເທົ່າ​ນັ້ນ​ຂອງ​ປະຊາຊົນຢູ່​ໃນ​ພາກ​ຕາ​ເວັນ​ອອກ​ກາງ ​ແລະ​ອາ​ຟຣິກາ​ເໜືອ ທີ່​ອາ​ໄສ​ຢູ່​ໃນສະພາບແວດ​ລ້ອມ​ຂອງວົງ​ການ​ຂ່າວ​ທີ່​ເສລີ ອີງ​ຕາມ​ການ​ປະ​ເມິ​ນຂອງ​ອົງການ Freedom House.

ລາຍ​ງານໄດ້​ເນັ້ນໂດຍ​ສະ​ເພາະ ​ໃສ່​ການ​ຕົກ​ຕ່ຳລົງ ​ໃນ​ປະ​ເທດອີ​ຈິບ ລີ​ເບຍ ຊີ​ເຣຍ ​ແລະ ອີຣັກ ຊຶ່ງ​ເປັນ​ພວກ​ປະ​ເທດ​ທີ່​ໄດ້​ເຫັນ​ການ​ເຄື່ອນ​ໄຫວ​ຂອງ​ພວກ​ຫົວ​ຮຸນ​ແຮງ​ເພີ້​ມທະວີ​ຂຶ້ນ​ ໃນ​ຮອບ​ປີທີ່ຜ່ານມາ​.

ຢູ​ໃນ​ທະວີບອາ​ເມຣິກາ ລາຍ​ງານໃຫ້​ຂໍ້​ສັງ​ເກດເຖິງການ​ຖອຍຫລັງ​ຄືນ​ໃນເສລີພາບ​ ຢູ່ໃນ​ປະ​ເທດ Honduras, Peru, Venezuela, Mexico ​ແລະ Ecuador. ຄິວ​ບາ​ກໍ​ໄດ້​ຖືກ​ຈັດ​ຢູ່​ໃນ​ລະດັບຕ່ຳເຊັ່ນ​ກັນ​ ​ເຖິງ​ແມ່ນ​ສະຫະລັດໄດ້​ເຄື່ອນ​ໄຫວ ​ເພື່ອ​ເປີດ​ສາຍ​ພົວພັນ​ທາງ​ການ​ທູດ​ຄືນ ​ກັບປະ​ເທດ​ຄອມ​ມິ​ວນິດ​ແຫ່ງ​ນີ້ ກໍ​ຕາມ.

ລາຍ​ງານໃຫ້​ຂໍ້​ສັງ​ເກດ​ຕື່ມ​ວ່າ ​ເຖິງ​ແມ່ນ​ໄດ້​ມີ​ການ​ປ່ອຍ​ໂຕ​ພວກ​ນັກ​ໂທດ​ການ​ເມືອງ​ ​ກວ່າ 50 ຄົນ​ ໃນ​ທ້າຍ​ເດືອນ​ທັນວາ ປີຜ່ານມາ​ນີ້ ​ກໍ​ຕາມ ​ແຕ່​ກໍ​ຍັງ​ມີ​ນັກ​ຂ່າວຫຼາຍ​ຄົນ ຖືກ​ຂັງຄຸກ​ຢູ່​ໃນ​ລະຫວ່າງປີ 2014 ນັ້ນ ​ແລະ​ການກວດ​ກາ​ຂ່າວຂອງ​ທາງ​ການກໍຍັງ​ມີ​ຢ່າງແຜ່​ຫຼາຍ​ ​ເຮັດ​ໃຫ້​ຄິວ​ບາເປັນ​ປະ​ເທດ ທີ່​ມີ​ເສລີພາບ​ດ້ານ​ການ​ຂ່າວ​ໜ້ອຍ​ທີ່​ສຸດໃນ​ຂົງ​ເຂດ ດ້ວຍ​ຄະ
ແນນ ພຽງ 91.

​ຢູ່ເອ​ເຊຍນັ້ນ ກໍມີເກົາຫຼີ​ເໜືອ ທີ່​ເປັນປະ​ເທດ​ທີ່ຈຳກັດ​ຮັດ​ແຄ​ບ​ເສລີພາບ​ດ້ານ​ການ​ຂ່າວ​ຫລາຍທີ່​ສຸດຂອງ​ໂລກ ​ແລະ ສປປ ລາວ ຫວຽດນາມ ​ກັບ ​ຈີນ ຊຶ່ງ​ເປັນ​ພວກ​ປະ​ເທດ​ທີ່​ກວດກາ​ແລະ​ຄວບ​ຄຸມ​ວົງ​ການ​ຂ່າວແຕ່ປະວັດ​ສາດ​ມາແລ້ວ.

ທ່ານ​ນາງ Vanessa Tucker ​ເປັນ​ຮອງ​ປະທານ​ຝ່າ​ບວິ​ເຄາະ​ຂ່າວ ຂອງອົງການ Freedom House.

ທ່ານ​ນາງ Tucker ກ່າວ​ວ່າ “ໜຶ່ງ​ໃນ​ຫຼາຍໆ​ດ້ານ​ທີ່​ພວກ​ເຮົາສັງ​ເກດ​ເຫັນ ທີ່​ວ່າ​ເປັນ​ບັນຫາ​ຢ່າງ​ແທ້​ຈິງ ​ໃນ​ລະ​ດັບ​ໂລກ​ແລະ​ລະດັບ​ຂົງ​ເຂດ ​ໃນ​ເວລາ​ນີ້ ກໍ​ຄື​ຜົນ​ກະທົບ​
ຈາກ​ພວກ​ປະ​ເທດເ​ຊັ່ນ​ຈີນ ຕໍ່​ເພື່ອ​ນບ້ານ. ດັ່ງ​ນັ້ນ ​ແນ່ນອນ ພວກ​ເຮົາ​ຈຶ່ງ​ໄດ້​ເຫັນ​ວ່າ ຜົນສະທ້ອນ​ໃນ​ທາງ​ລົບ ຈາກພຶດຕິ​ກຳ​ຕ່າງໆ​ຂອງຈີນ​ ຢູ່​ໃນ​ຮົງ​ກົງ ​ໃນ​ໄຕ້​ຫວັນ ​ແລະ​
ປະ​ເທດ​ເພື່ອນ​ບ້າ​ນອື່ນໆ​ອີກ ຈຳນວນ​ໜຶ່ງ​.”

ມຽນມາກໍ​ໄດ້​ປະສົບ​ກັບ​ການ​ຕ່າວ​ປີ້ນ​ຂອງ​ເສລີພາບ​ໃນ​ວົງ​ການ​ຂ່າວ​ ໃນ​ປີ 2014 ນັ້ນ ລຸນ​ຫຼັງ​ໄດ້​ມີ​ການ​ປັບປຸງ​ໃຫ້​ດີ​ຂຶ້ນມາ​ໄດ້​ຫຼາຍ​ປີ ຫຼັງ​ຈາກ​ການ​ຍຸດຕິ​ລົງ​ຂອງ​ການ​ປົກຄອງ​ໂດຍກົງ
ຂອງ​ທະຫານ​ ​ໃນ​ປີ 2011.

ທ່ານ​ນາງ Sarah Cook ​ເປັນນັກວິ​ເຄາະອາວຸ​ໂສຝ່າຍຄົ້ນຄວ້າ​ກ່ຽວ​ກັບເອ​ເຊຍຕາ​ເວັນ​ອອກ ​ຂອງ​ Freedom House​.

ທ່ານ​ນາງ Sarah Cook ກ່າວ​ວ່າ “ປີ​ນີ້ ພວກ​ເຮົາ​ໄດ້​ເຫັນ​ນັກ​ຂ່າວ ​ຈຳນວນ​ໜຶ່ງ
ທີ່​ບໍ່​ພຽງ​ແຕ່​ໄດ້ຖືກ​ຈັບ​ກຸມ ຫຼືກັກຕົວ​ເທົ່າ​ນັ້ນ ​ແຕ່​ໄດ້​ຖືກ​ລົງ​ໂທດ​ຈຳ​ຄຸກນຳ. ພວກ
​ນັກ​ຂ່າວ​ຕ່າງປະ​ເທດ​ບາງ​ຄົນ ກໍປະ​ເຊີນ​ກັບ​ ຂໍ້​ຈຳກັດ​ຮັດ​ແຄບ​ດ້ານວີ​ຊາ ທີ່​ເຂັ້ມ
​ງວດ​ຂຶ້ນ.”

Freedom House ກ່າວ​ວ່າ ​ເຂດ Eurasia ຍັງ​ເປັນເຂດທີ່​ຂີ້ຮ້າຍ ທີ່​ສຸດ​ຂອງ​ໂລກ​ ສຳລັບ​ເສລີພາບ​ໃນ​ວົງ​ການ​ຂ່າວ ​ໂດຍໃຫ້​ຂໍ້ສັງ​ເກດ​ໂດຍ​ສະ​ເພາະ ​ເຖິງ​ການ​ຕົກ​ຕ່ຳ​ລົງ​ຢູ່ຣັດ​ເຊຍ​.

ສ່ວນຢູ​ໂຣບນັ້ນ ກໍ​ຍັງເປັນ​ພາກ​ພື້ນ​ທີ່ໄດ້​ຮັບ​ຄະ​ແນນ​ສູງ​ທີ່​ສຸດຈາກ​ Freedom House ແຕ່​ເຖິງ​ຢ່າງ​ໃດ ຂົງ​ເຂດ​ດັ່ງກ່າວ​ກໍໄດ້​ປະ​ເຊີນ​ກັບ​ການ​ຕົກ​ຕ່ຳ​ລົງ​ຫຼາຍ​ທີ່​ສຸດ ອັນ​ດັບ​ສອງຂອງ​ຕົນ ​ໃນ​ຮອບ​ທົດ​ສະ​ວັດ​ທີ່ຜ່ານ​ມາ​.

​A new report says worldwide working conditions for the news media have fallen sharply to their lowest point in more than 10 years. The study says journalists are facing more restrictions from governments, militants, criminals and owners of the media.

While the spread of smartphones and the internet means news is easier than ever to access, journalists are finding themselves in courtrooms, behind bars, intimidated, even silenced, according to a report by the independent watchdog organization, Freedom House.

ຢ່າລືບ graph ນີ້

The Global Average Press Freedom Score Has Declined Sharply Since 2004

The Global Average Press Freedom Score Has Declined Sharply Since 2004

“Unfortunately, the news is very bad. Press freedom suffered a global decline in 2014. It is the worst decline in a decade. Things are getting bad and they are getting bad even faster than they have in the past,” said Vice President for Analysis Vanessa Tucker.

The worst offenders on the organization's ranking of 199 nations or territories were North Korea, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Belarus, Cuba, Syria, Iran and Crimea. Norway, Sweden and Belgium topped the list.

Overall, Freedom House says just 14 percent of the world's population lives in free countries "where coverage of political news is robust, the safety of journalists is guaranteed, state intrusion in media affairs is minimal, and the press is not subject to onerous legal or economic pressures."

The report attributed the decline in press freedom to an increase in restrictive laws against the press. It said these laws were often passed ostensibly for national security reasons.

Another reason cited for the deterioration of media liberties was the inability of local and foreign journalists to physically access and report freely in areas such as protest sites and war zones.

Americas

While much of North America was rated as having a free press, much of Latin America was either partially free or not free.

According to Freedom of the Press 2015, Mexico intimidated journalists and passed a controversial communications law.

The report also noted rollbacks in freedom in Honduras, Peru, Venezuela, and Ecuador. Press freedom was also ranked poorly in Cuba, despite the U.S. move to re-open diplomatic relations with the Communist country.

"[Despite] the resulting release of over 50 political prisoners in late December, journalists were still behind bars during 2014, and official censorship remained pervasive, leaving Cuba as the worst performer in the region with a score of 91," it noted.

The United States was criticized for the rough treatment of journalists by police during protests in Ferguson, Missouri.

The report also said "press freedom advocates remained concerned about certain practices and policies of the federal government, including the Obama administration’s relatively rigid controls on the information coming out of the White House and government agencies."

Asia-Pacific

In the Asia-Pacific region only five percent of the population had access to free media, while the rest were split evenly between partly free or not free.

China’s scored its lowest since the 1990s, as authorities jailed journalists and tightened control over media outlets.

“One of the areas that we noted that is a real problem globally and regionally right now is the impact of actors like China on their neighbors. So we saw that actions that China took had a negative impact, of course, in Hong Kong, in Taiwan and some of the other neighboring countries,” said Tucker.

Asia also includes the world's worst-rated country, North Korea, as well as historically poor performers Laos and Vietnam.

Myanmar, also known as Burma, experienced a reversal in press freedoms in 2014, a trend that follows several years of improvement following the end of direct military rule in 2011.

"This year we saw a number of journalists who were not only arrested or detained but also received prison terms. Some foreign journalists also encountered harsher visa restrictions," said Sarah Cook, a senior East Asia research analyst for Freedom House.

Middle East and North Africa

The report was largely negative about developments in the Middle East and North Africa, where a wave of street protests, referred to as the Arab Spring, has produced little results in the way of increased freedom.

"After historic gains in the Middle East in 2011, only one country has continued to make progress toward fulfilling the promise of the Arab Spring. Tunisia registered the best score of any Arab country in over a decade, although it remained Partly Free," the report said.

Only two percent of those living in the Middle East and North Africa have a free press environment, Freedom House estimates. It particularly highlighted declines in Egypt, Libya, Syria, and Iraq - countries that have seen increased militant activity in the past year.

Sub-Saharan Africa

In sub-Saharan Africa only three percent of the population is exposed to information from free media.

More than half of the press is partly free and nearly 40 percent are not free.

Sub-Saharan Africa was the only region to show improvement in press freedom in 2014, although the report said "most countries that earned improvements started from a low baseline, such as Central African Republic and Guinea-Bissau."

Eurasia

The Freedom House report says the Eurasia region’s average score remained the worst in the world.

More than 80 percent of the media was judged as not free and less than 20 percent partly free.

In Russia, the report says, there was a crackdown on independent voices inside the country and in neighboring nations.

“One of the big areas of troubling impact that we saw was in propaganda. So completely fabricated propaganda such that people inside of Russia have essentially no idea what is going on in conflicts like that in Ukraine,” said Tucker.

Europe

Europe was the group's highest-ranking region, although it noted that the region experienced the second-largest decline over the past decade.

Freedom House says the growing threats to the media are a stark challenge to democratic values around the globe.

VOA correspondent Meredith Buel contributed to this report.

XS
SM
MD
LG