ລິ້ງ ສຳຫລັບເຂົ້າຫາ

ກິດຈະ​ການ ຂອງ​ຈີນ ​ຢູ່​ຂົ້ວ​ໂລກ​ເໜືອ ຕ້ອງໄດ້ ມີການເອົາ​​ໃຈ​​ໃສ່ຕື່ມ​ ໂດຍ ສຫລ


ທຸງຊາດຈີນຖືກຊັກຂຶ້ນ ຢູ່ Longyearbyen ທີ່ Svalbard ປະເທດ Norway ເພື່ອປັກໝາຍບ່ອນຄົ້ນຄວ້າຂອງຈີນ ວັນທີ 31 ເດືອນພະຈິກ 2001.

ທຸງຊາດຈີນຖືກຊັກຂຶ້ນ ຢູ່ Longyearbyen ທີ່ Svalbard ປະເທດ Norway ເພື່ອປັກໝາຍບ່ອນຄົ້ນຄວ້າຂອງຈີນ ວັນທີ 31 ເດືອນພະຈິກ 2001.

ລາຍ​ງານ​ສະບັບ​ນຶ່ງ​ ຂອງ​ຄະນະ​ກຳມະການໃຫ້​ຄຳ​ແນະນຳ​ດ້ານຄວາມ​ໝັ້ນຄົງ ນາໆ​ຊາດ​ຂອງກະຊວງ​ຕ່າງປະ​ເທດ​ສະຫະລັດ ຫຼື ISAB ​ໄດ້​ສະ​ແດງ​ຄວາມ​ເປັນ​ຫ່ວງ​ ກ່ຽວ​ກັບ​ການ​ຂະຫຍາຍ​ກິດຈະ​ການຢ່າງ​ວ່ອງ​ໄວຂອງ​ຈີນ​ຢູ່​ຂົ້ວ​ໂລກ​ໂລກ​ເໜືອ.

ຄະນະກຳມະການ​ທີ່​ປະກອບ​ດ້ວຍຜູ້​ຊ່ຽວຊານດ້ານຄວາມ​ໝັ້ນຄົງ​ແຫ່ງ​ຊາດ​ໄດ້​ຮຽກຮ້ອງ​ໃຫ້​ລັດຖະບານ​ສະຫະລັດ ​ເອົາໃຈໃສ່ຕື່ມ​ຂຶ້ນ ​ຕໍ່​ຜົນ​ກະທົບ​ຈາກກິດຈະ​ການຕ່າງໆຂອງ​ຈີນ​ຢູ່​ຂົ້ວ​ໂລກ​ເໜືອ ຕໍ່​ຄວາມ​ໝັ້ນຄົງ​ຂອງ​ຂົງ​ເຂດ.

​ໂດຍ​ທົ່ວ​ໄປ​ແລ້ວ ຄະນະ​ກຳມະການ ISAB ​ຮຽກຮ້ອງ​ໃຫ້​ສືບ​ຕໍ່​ ການ​ເອົາບົດ ບາດນຳພາ​ຂອງ​ສະຫະລັດ ຕໍ່​ບັນ​ຫາ​ຢູ່​ຂົ້ວ​ໂລກ​ເໜືອ​ແລະໄດ້​ກ່າວ​ຢ້ຳ​ເຖິງຄວາມ​ເປັນ​ຫ່ວງ​ກ່ຽວ​ກັບ “ຜົນ​ປະ​ໂຫຍ​ດ ນະ​ໂຍບາຍ ​ແລະ​ກິດຈະການ​ຕ່າງໆຂອງຣັດ​ເຊຍ” ຢູ່ໃນຂົງ​ເຂດພາກ​ເໜືອ​ສຸດຂອງ​ໂລກ. ​ແຕ່​ວ່າ ຄະນະ​ກຳ​ມະ​ການ​ຍັງ​ໄດ້​ທົບ​ທວນ​ກິດຈະການ​ຕ່າງໆ ຂອງ​ຈີນ ​ແລະ​ບັນດາ​ປະ​ເທ​ດອື່ນໆ ທີ່​ບໍ່​ໄດ້​ຢູ່​ໃກ້​ກັບ​ຂົ້ວ​ໂລກ​ເໜືອ ​ແຕ່​ກໍ​ມີ​ຜົນ​ປະ​ໂຫຍ​ດ​ເພີ້ມຂຶ້ນ​ໃນ​ການເຄື່ອນ​ໄຫວຂອງ​ຕົນ.

ບັນດາ​ນັກວິທະຍາສາດ ​ໄດ້​ອ້າງຄຳ​ເວົ້າ ​ຢູ່​ໃນ​ລາຍ​ງານ​ຂອງ​ຄະນະ​ກຳ​ມະ​ການ​ກ່ຽວ​ກັບ​ຂົ້ວ​ໂລກ​ເໜືອຫວ່າງມໍ່ໆ​ມາ​ນີ້​ ​ໂດຍໃຫ້​ຂໍ້​ສັງ​ເກດ​ວ່າການ​ເປື່ອຍ​ຂອງຫິມະ ​ແລະ​ນໍ້າກ້ອນ​ຢ່າງ​ວ່ອງ​ໄວຢູ່ຂົ້ວ​ໂລກ​ເໜືອ ທີ່​ມີ​ສາ​ເຫດ ມາ​ຈາກການ​ປ່ຽນ​ແປງ​ຂອງດິນ​ຟ້າ​ອາກາດ ​ໄດ້​ເຮັດ​ໃຫ້ຫລາຍໆ​ປະເທດຊ​ອກຫາ​ຊ່ອງ​ທາງ ​ເພື່ອ​ເຂົ້າ​ໄປ ມີບົດບາດໃນ​ການ​ພັດທະນາ​ຢູ່​ໃນຂົ້ວ​ໂລກ​ເໜືອ ແຫ​ລ່ງນໍ້າມັນ ​ແລະ​ແກັສຂອງ​ເຂດ​ດັ່ງກ່າວ.

A report by the State Department's International Security Advisory Board (ISAB) expresses concern about the rapid expansion of China's activities in the Arctic.

The board of national-security experts is now urging the U.S. government to pay more attention to the impact of China's Arctic activities on regional security.

Overall, ISAB is calling for a continuing U.S. leadership role on Arctic issues, and highlighting concerns about "Russian interests, policies and activities" in the world's northernmost regions. But the board also has reviewed the activities of China and other countries not physically close to the Arctic but who have growing interests in its development.

Scientists quoted in the board's recent "Report on Arctic Policy" note that the dramatic melting of Arctic snow and ice caused by climate change has prompted many countries to seek a role in Arctic development, to gain access to the region's oil and gas resources.

ພາບບັນທຶກສະແດງໃຫ້ເຫັນບ່ອນເຈາະນໍ້າມັນ ຂອງຣັດເຊຍ ໃກ້ກັບໝູ່ບ້ານຢູ່ຂົ້ວໂລກເໜືອ.

ພາບບັນທຶກສະແດງໃຫ້ເຫັນບ່ອນເຈາະນໍ້າມັນ ຂອງຣັດເຊຍ ໃກ້ກັບໝູ່ບ້ານຢູ່ຂົ້ວໂລກເໜືອ.

China now a 'near-Arctic' nation

China, which is geographically far from the North Pole, is now claiming to be a near-Arctic country, to match its "long-term, strategic objective of pursuing economic development and growth in the Arctic," the ISAB report said.

However, the ISAB study added that China's pursuit of energy resources conflicts with multinational efforts to protect the environment and work to limit the effects of climate change: "Climate change in the Arctic has affected climatic conditions in China, resulting in extreme weather, including flood threats to Chinese coastal cities and adverse effects on food production."

The ISAB experts noted the sharp increase in public attention to Arctic events in recent years — "from the impacts of climate change; to planned cruise ship trips through the Northwest Passage (NWP) made possible by the decline in the ice; to the challenges of drilling for oil in the Arctic; and to concerns about the buildup of Russian military facilities and capabilities along Russia's northern borders."

Rise in Arctic business

Human activities have grown in the Arctic by almost 400 percent in the last decade, the U.S. board estimated, in terms of shipping, mining, energy exploration, fishing and tourism.

ພາບບັນທຶກເຮືອຫາປາ ກຳລັງລອງໄປຕາມຮ່ອມນໍ້າກ້ອນ ໃກ້ກັບ Ilulissat, Greenland.

ພາບບັນທຶກເຮືອຫາປາ ກຳລັງລອງໄປຕາມຮ່ອມນໍ້າກ້ອນ ໃກ້ກັບ Ilulissat, Greenland.

Economic opportunities in the Arctic are important to China in the short term, the report said, such as "sea and air routes [that] would allow for expanded shipping to markets in Europe and North America."

"In the long term," the report added, "China could benefit from access to resources including oil, other hydrocarbons, minerals and fisheries, and expanding its tourism and bioprospecting industries to the region."

China has rapidly increased its investment in the Arctic in recent years, building more icebreaker ships and taking other steps to prepare for future regional development.

'Source of concern'

"China's ... quest for resources, particularly in Iceland and Greenland, are sources of concern to some," ISAB member Sherri Goodman, former deputy undersecretary of defense, told a symposium this week sponsored by the American Security Research Program and The Arctic Energy Center.

The report notes China's cooperation with Russia in the development of natural-gas deposits in the Arctic Siberian Yamal Peninsula.

Goodman said the impact of Sino-Russian cooperation on Arctic regional security has not attracted enough attention from the U.S. government.

Conversely, fellow ISAB member Robert Hunter, a former U.S. ambassador to NATO, argues that Russia's interests in the Arctic are very different from those of China, and that it is unlikely Russia will join forces with China against the West.

"The shift is dramatically, whether we like it or not, toward China," he said. "So, I worry about a lot of things the Russians do, but I do not see a coalescing there, should it become a common joint player."

ISAB members agreed that the United States should strengthen its operational capacity in the Arctic, including building new icebreakers of its own and gradually establishing infrastructure in the Arctic in advance of potential future security crises.

The International Security Advisory Board, funded by the U.S. government, is intended to give the State Department independent insight and advice on all aspects of arms control, disarmament, nonproliferation, international security and related aspects of public diplomacy. Members of the board, who are national-security experts with scientific, military, diplomatic and political backgrounds, meet quarterly to provide recommendations to the secretary of state.

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